Vitamin K

[size=150]Vitamin K[/size]

Vitamin K is found in nature in two forms - K1, also called phylloquinone, is found in plants and vitamin K2, also called menaquinone, which can be synthesized by many bacteria. Vitamin K3, menadione, is a synthetic form of this vitamin which is manmade.

Sources of Vitamin K

Vitamin K is produced by bacterial flora, and is easy to acquire in the diet. Vitamin K is found in leafy green vegetables such as spinach and lettuce; Brassica vegetables such as kale, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts; wheat bran; cereals; some fruits; and other dairy products; soybeans; and other soy products. Two tablespoons of parsley contains 153% of the recommended daily amount of Vitamin K.

Vitamin K is required for

Vitamin K is used in the body to control blood clotting and is essential for synthesizing the liver protein that controls the clotting. It is involved in creating the important prothrombin, which is the precursor to thrombin - a very important factor in blood clotting. It is also involved in bone formation and repair. In the intestines it also assists in converting glucose to glycogen, this can then be stored in the liver. There are some indications that Vitamin K may decrease the incidence or severity of osteoporosis and slow bone loss.

Role in disease

Vitamin K-deficiency may occur by disturbed intestinal uptake (such as would occur in a bile duct obstruction), by therapeutic or accidental intake of vitamin K-antagonists or, very rarely, by nutritional vitamin K-deficiency. As a result of the acquired vitamin K-deficiency, Gla-residues are not or incompletely formed and hence the Gla-proteins are inactive. Lack of control of the three processes mentioned above may lead to the following: risk of massive, uncontrolled internal bleeding, cartilage calcification and severe malformation of developing bone, or deposition of insoluble calcium salts in the arterial vessel walls.

Deficiency of vitamin K

A deficiency of this vitamin in newborn babies’ results in hemorrhagic disease, as well as postoperative bleeding and hematuria while muscle hematomas and inter-cranial hemorrhages have been reported.
A shortage of this vitamin may manifest itself in nosebleeds, internal hemorrhaging.


Age				       Male          Female    Pregnancy	Lactation
Birth to 6 months     2.0 mcg	    2.0 mcg
7–12 months		     2.5 mcg	    2.5 mcg
1–3 years   		    30 mcg        30 mcg
4–8 years   		    55 mcg        55 mcg
9–13 years  		    60 mcg        60 mcg
14–18 years		     75 mcg        75 mcg      75 mcg    75 mcg
19+ years   		    120 mcg	    90 mcg      90 mcg    90 mcg

When more may be required

This nutrient can be destroyed by freezing and radiation as well as air pollution. Absorption may be decreased when rancid fats are present, as well as excessive refined sugar, antibiotics, high dosages of vitamin E, or calcium and mineral oils.

Enemy of vitamin K

When you are prone to bruising easily, or when pregnant you might be in need of more Vitamin K. But be careful not to take too much Vitamin K in the last stages of pregnancy, since it could be toxic for the baby.

Use on newborn babies

In some countries, injections of Vitamin K are routinely given to newborn babies. Vitamin K is used as prophylactic measure to prevent late-onset hemorrhagic disease (Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a coagulation disturbance in newborns due to vitamin K deficiency. As a consequence of vitamin K deficiency there is an impaired production of coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X by the liver.). However, HDN is a relatively rare problem, and many parents now choose for their babies not to have such an injection.

Vitamin K on Wikipedia

Vitamin K on NIH

Here is a list of [size=150]Vegan Products Rich in Vitamin K[/size]

See also lists of:
Spices Rich in Vitamin K
Fruits Rich in Vitamin K
Vegetables Rich in Vitamin K
Nuts Rich in Vitamin K
Legumes Rich in Vitamin K
Cereals Rich in Vitamin K

I don’t know that there are two form and three kinds of Vitamin K… Thanks for this information…