Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba)

Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba)
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Cyamopsis psoralioides L.

The guar bean or cluster bean, an annual legume, is the source of guar gum. It grows best under conditions with frequent rainfall, but tolerates arid conditions well.[1] 80% of world production is in India, but due to strong demand, it is being introduced into new areas.

For best growth, the guar bean requires full sunshine, flashing rainfalls that are moderately frequent, and well drained soil. However, it is extremely drought tolerant and thrives in semi-arid regions. Too much precipitation can cause the plant to become more “leafy” thereby reducing the number of pods and/or the number of seeds per pod that affects the size and yield of seeds. The crop is sown after the first rains in July and harvested in late October.It is grown principally in northwestern India, and Pakistan[2] with smaller crops grown in the semi-arid areas of the high plains of Texas in the USA[3], Australia and Africa. The most important growing area centres on Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India.

Currently India is the source of about 80% of the world production of guar gum. Several commercial growers [4] have converted their crops to guar production to support the increasing demand for guar and other organic crops [5] in the United States.

Varieties: Pusa Naubahar and Pusa Sadabahar. Seeds at the rate of 10 to 12 kilograms/hectares (9–11 lb/acre) are planted at a spacing of 45-60 x 20-30 cm (18–24 x 8–12 in) in February-March and June-July. During rainy season, the seeds are sown 2-3 cm (~1 in) deep on ridges and in furrows during summer months. FYM is applied at the rate of 25 tonnes/ha (11.1 tons/acre). N, P2O5 and K2O recommendation for the crop is 20:60:80 kg/ha (18:53:71 lb/acre). Average yield is 5 to 6 tonnes/ha (2.2–2.6 tons/acre).