Hi, I assemble these by wetting 1 cup of TSP (with boiling water), and 1/2 cup of soy flour, 1/2 cup of vital wheat gluten flour, and spices of choice but add paprika for appearance. Then it can be mixed and formed into “burgers,” balls served with pasta or, into “sausage.” They hold together very well without any binder. I usally fry but can be grillled or oven baked. A nice alternative to my usual fare, homemade pasta of soy, wheat and gluten. Best of fortune, ak